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תוצאות המחקר הראו שאכן קיים קשר בין הניצולות שחוו פוסט טראומה לבין התחלואה בסרטן, אך החשיפה לרעב הינו משתנה אשר משפיע על קשר זה (משתנה מתערב). במילים אחרות, תסמונת הפוסט טראומה מהווה גורם סיכון ללקות בסרטן השד רק כאשר קיים כבר גורם סיכון מוכר אחר כמו רעב.
מחקר זה פותח פתח למחקרים נוספים לשם הבנת הקשרים בין חוויות שעובר האדם- נפשיות וגופניות- לבין סיכויי התחלואה שלו בעתיד.

 

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מהי הפרעת דְּחָק פוסט-טראומטית?

חיידק Yersinia pestis- התמונה תחת רישיון PD-USGOV-HHS-CDC
חיידק Yersinia pestis- התמונה תחת רישיון PD-USGOV-HHS-CDC

"המוות השחור" או המגפה השחורה הייתה מגפה שהכתה באסיה ובאירופה בעיקר בין השנים 1347-1351 בכמה גלים וקטלה, לפי הערכות שונות, כ-35 מיליון בני אדם בסין לבדה, ובין 20 ל-25 מיליון בני אדם באירופה, כחצי מאוכלוסיית היבשת (לאחר שנים אלו התפרצה המגפה שוב, אך בהיקפים קטנים יותר).
הסברה היא שמדובר במגפת דבר, אשר נקראה המגפה השחורה בגלל הכתמים השחורים שהופיעו על עורם ומתחת לעיניים של האנשים שלקו במחלה (בשל ההמוסידרין שבדם), אך יש חוקרים הטוענים שמדובר במחלה אחרת- למשל כזו שיכולה היתה להיגרם מנגיף האבולה או המרבונג (נגיף המחולל את קדחת מרבורג הדימומית הקשור לאבולה).
לאחרונה התגלו בחפירות רכבת תחתית בלונדון מעיין קבר אחים שעד עתה מקומו היה תעלומה. בשרידי השלדים התגלה DNA אשר שייך ל- Yersinia pestis (חיידק גראם שלילי אשר ידוע כמחולל מגפת הדבר) ולאחר ביצוע של תיארוך פחמן רדיואקטיבי התברר שהמתים נקברו בשני התפרצויות נפרדות של המחלה- בין השנים 1348-1350 ובסביבות שנת 1430.
חפירה זו, אשר עדיין ממשיכה לצורך גילוי קבר גדול יותר, פותרת תעלומה בת 660 שנה ומהווה צעד משמעותי לחקר המגפה הקשה ביותר שידעה אירופה בימי הביניים.

 
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על מגפת "המוות השחור"

קצת על מחולל הדבר- החיידק Yersinia pestis

קרדיט: Photograph Gail ShumwayGetty Image
קרדיט:  Gail Shumway-Getty Image

דבר ידוע הוא יכולתה של הנמלה להרים משקלים כבדים הרבה יותר ממשקל גופה, אך האומדן המדויק לא היה ידוע. כעת, מחקר חדש אשר נערך באוניברסיטת אוהיו בארצות הברית בנה מודל המייצג את מבנה הנמלה ובעזרתו גילה שהיא מסוגלת להרים משקל אסטרונומי של פי 5,000 ממשקל גופה.
נתון זה התגלה לחוקרים כאשר ביצעו מה שנקרא "הנדסה לאחור"- משמע הם בנו מודל מלאכותי אשר מחקה את מבנה הנמלה באופן מדויק ואז התחקו בהדרגתיות אחרי היכולת שלה להרים משקל כבד. במהלך המחקר נחשף אופן פעולתו של צוואר הנמלה, אשר מורכב מרקמות רכות היוצרות חיכוך עם השלד הקשיח של הנמלה ואז מוריד את העומס על צווארה.
גילוי זה יכול לאפשר בעתיד לחיקוי מבנה צוואר הנמלה וליצירת רובוטים או מנופים אשר יכולים לשאת משקלים כבדים הרבה יותר ממשקלם.

 
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קצת על הנמלים (Formicidae)

שחמטאפקט איינסטלונג (Einstellung) מתואר כנטייתו של המוח לדבוק בפתרון מוכר לבעיה, תוך התעלמות מפתרונות אחרים אשר יכולים להיות טובים יותר.
אפקט זה, אשר התגלה על-ידי הפסיכולוג האמריקאי אברהם לוצ'ינס בשנת 1942, הטריד את עולם המחקר שנים רבות ורק בניסוי שנערך לאחרונה בעזרת מעקב אחרי תנועות עיניים, התבססה הבנתו.
בניסוי השתתפו שחקני שחמט מנוסים, אשר יכלו להשתמש בפתרון פחות מוכר להשגת מט בשלושה צעדים בלבד, אך בחרו להשתמש בפתרון המוכר להשגת מט בחמישה צעדים. מצלמת אינפרא-אדום, אשר צילמה את תנועות עיניהם גילתה שהם אינם מסתכלים כלל לאיזורים אחרים בלוח, אלא אל המשבצות של הפתרון המוכר בלבד. הם הפכו מעיין "עיוורים" לפתרונות אחרים.
הנטייה הפסיכולוגית לדבוק בפתרון מוכר מוסברת בחיסכון באנרגיה, משמע פתרון שכבר עבד, כנראה שיעבוד שוב פעם. מאידך, לעיתים דווקא הפתרון הלא מוכר הוא הדרך הנכונה להתמודד. מחקרים קודמים הראו שככל שהאדם מומחה יותר בתחומו, בין אם מדובר בשחמט, רפואה, מדע או כל שטח אחר- כך הוא חסין יותר לאפקט איינסטלונג. המשך המחקר בתחום זה יכול לאתר את הדרכים להצליח להתגבר על אפקט זה ולמנוע הטיות שיפוטיות של שופטים, חברי מושבעים ואנשי קבלת החלטות.
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כרומוזום Y הינו כרומוזום קטן יחסית אשר נמצא רק אצל גברים. עליו נמצאים כ-20 גנים בלבד (לעומת מעל 1,000 גנים על כרומוזום X) אשר אחראים לכל ההבדלים המבניים והפיזיולוגיים בין גברים לנשים.
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בקבוקי פלסטיקזיהומים פטרייתים ברמות חומרה שונות תוקפות מעל מיליארד אנשים בעולם בכל שנה, במיוחד את אלו בעלי מערכת חיסון חלשה. התרופות האנטי-פטריתיות יעילות במידה מוגבלת וגורמות לתופעות לוואי מאחר שהן מתקשות להבחין בין תאים בריאים לבין תאים הנגועים בפטריות.
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בשנים האחרונות הצליחו מדענים לגרות תאי עצב במוח בעזרת אלומות אולטרסאונד ממוקדות בעוצמה לא גבוהה. אפשרות זו פותחת פתח ליישומים אשר יכולים להתערב בפעילות המוח ולטפל בו באופן לא פולשני- מאידך לא הוצע עדיין הסבר מניח את הדעת לגבי התופעה.
מחקר חדש של פרופ' איתן קימל ופרופ' שי שהם, בעזרתו של הדוקטורנט מיכאל פלקסין, מציע הסבר לאותה התופעה. לטענתם, קרום התא צובר אנרגיה בעקבות רטט שתי שכבות המולקולות אשר מרכיבות אותו. בעקבות הרטט נוצר זרם חילופין אשר מוביל להצטברות מטען בקרום עד כדי יצירת פוטנציאל פעולה ועירור חשמלי של התא.
מידע חדש זה יכול להוביל ליישומים בתחום מחקר המוח, איבחון בעזרת אולטראסאונד מוח כמידע משלים לבדיקת ה-MRI, טיפול במחלת האפילפסיה ועוד.

 

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סנטה מריה2הספינה "סנטה מריה" (Santa María) היתה ספינת הדגל של כריסטופר קולומבוס במסעו הראשון לגילוי יבשת אמריקה באוגוסט 1492. יחד איתה היו עוד שתי ספינות- הניניה והפינטה. ספינה זו היתה מסוג "קרארק" (דגם ספינה בעלת שלושה או ארבעה תרנים אשר פיתחו ספנים פורטוגלים במאה ה-15) והיא טבעה כחודש לאחר גילוי אמריקה על-ידי קולומבוס.
לאחרונה מגלה ספינות טבועות בשם בארי קליפורד טוען שגילה את שרידי סנטה מריה בחוף הצפוני של האיטי (מדינה באיים הקאריביים) כבר לפני כ-10 שנים, כשאז סבר בטעות שמדובר בספינה מתקופה מאוחרת. זיהוי הספינה נעשה לפי אבני איזון אשר מקורם מספרד ותותח מתקופת המאה ה-15 אשר נקרא "האקדח המעשן".
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