אפקט איינסטלונג (Einstellung) מתואר כנטייתו של המוח לדבוק בפתרון מוכר לבעיה, תוך התעלמות מפתרונות אחרים אשר יכולים להיות טובים יותר.
אפקט זה, אשר התגלה על-ידי הפסיכולוג האמריקאי אברהם לוצ'ינס בשנת 1942, הטריד את עולם המחקר שנים רבות ורק בניסוי שנערך לאחרונה בעזרת מעקב אחרי תנועות עיניים, התבססה הבנתו.
בניסוי השתתפו שחקני שחמט מנוסים, אשר יכלו להשתמש בפתרון פחות מוכר להשגת מט בשלושה צעדים בלבד, אך בחרו להשתמש בפתרון המוכר להשגת מט בחמישה צעדים. מצלמת אינפרא-אדום, אשר צילמה את תנועות עיניהם גילתה שהם אינם מסתכלים כלל לאיזורים אחרים בלוח, אלא אל המשבצות של הפתרון המוכר בלבד. הם הפכו מעיין “עיוורים” לפתרונות אחרים.
הנטייה הפסיכולוגית לדבוק בפתרון מוכר מוסברת בחיסכון באנרגיה, משמע פתרון שכבר עבד, כנראה שיעבוד שוב פעם. מאידך, לעיתים דווקא הפתרון הלא מוכר הוא הדרך הנכונה להתמודד. מחקרים קודמים הראו שככל שהאדם מומחה יותר בתחומו, בין אם מדובר בשחמט, רפואה, מדע או כל שטח אחר- כך הוא חסין יותר לאפקט איינסטלונג. המשך המחקר בתחום זה יכול לאתר את הדרכים להצליח להתגבר על אפקט זה ולמנוע הטיות שיפוטיות של שופטים, חברי מושבעים ואנשי קבלת החלטות.
קישור לכתבה- אתר סיינטיפיק אמריקן ישראל
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